Monthly Archives: February 2017

The Endomorph – Hard Losers and Their Training and Nutrition Strategy

Most people who are working hard but still struggling to lose body fat are endomorphs. An endomorph is someone with a slow metabolism who is genetically prone to store fat easily. Endomorphs are usually, but not always, large framed with medium to large joints.

Endomorphs sometimes have varying degrees of carbohydrate sensitivity and insulin resistance, so high carbohydrate diets are usually not effective for body fat control. Processed and refined carbohydrates that contain white sugar and white flour are especially detrimental and tend to convert to body fat more rapidly in endomorphs. Low to moderate carbohydrate diets with higher protein usually work best for endomorphs.

While some genetically gifted mesomorphs and ectomorphs can eat whatever they want and never gain any fat, the endomorph must eat clean and healthy almost all the time. This requires the development of high levels of nutritional discipline. Endomorphs are the types who will tend to gain body fat very quickly if they eat too much or if they eat the wrong types of foods.

Endomorphs cannot “cheat” frequently and get away with it. Their metabolisms are extremely unforgiving. One or two cheat meals per week seem to be the limit. Poor daily nutrition habits or frequent cheat days always set them back.

Endomorphs generally have a very difficult time losing fat with diet alone. Even a nearly perfect diet sometimes won’t work by itself because the endomorph needs the boost in metabolism that exercise provides.

A larger quantity of cardio is almost always necessary for the endomorph to lose body fat. Someone with a low endomorph component may stay lean with little or no cardio at all. Extreme endomorphs usually need cardio every day before the body fat begins to come off.

Occasionally, an extreme endomorph (7 on the endomorph scale), will have a difficult time losing fat even while on a well-constructed training and nutrition program. Extreme endomorphs sometimes need to restrict carbohydrates drastically (under 100 g./day for women, under 175 g./day for men) before any substantial fat loss occurs. They may also need to use a carbohydrate cycling approach that rotates high carbohydrate days with low carbohydrate days in order to stimulate their sluggish metabolisms and prevent going into starvation mode. Santa Claus is the archetypical endomorph.

Endomorph characteristics

Naturally high levels of body fat (often overweight) Usually large boned, large joints, large frame (but not always) Short, tapering arms and legs Smooth, round body contours (round or pear shaped body) Wide waist and hips Waist dominates over chest Tendency to always store excess calories as fat (can’t get away with overeating) Keeping fat off after it is lost is a challenge Tendency to be sluggish, slow moving and lacking energy Slow thyroid or other hormone imbalance (sometimes) Fairly good strength levels Sensitive to carbohydrates (carbs are easily stored as fat) Responds better to diets with higher protein and low (or moderate) carbs Naturally slow metabolic rate/low set point (fewer calories burned at rest) Falls asleep easily and sleeps deeply A lot of cardio is necessary to lose weight and body fat Extremely difficult to lose weight (requires great effort) Bouts of fatigue and tiredness Often describe themselves as having a “slow metabolism” Tendency to gain fat easily as soon as exercise is stopped Tendency to lose fat slowly, even on a “clean,” low fat, low calorie diet. Often overweight, even though they don’t eat very much Respond best to frequent, even daily, training

Endomorph training and nutrition strategy

When it comes to fat loss, a well-planned, strategic approach to nutrition and training is more important for the endomorph than for any other body type. The endomorph strategy focuses on high levels of activity and extreme levels of discipline and consistency in nutritional habits. Most endomorphs also need some degree of carbohydrate restriction with higher protein levels to compensate.

High protein, medium to low carbs

High protein, low to moderate carb diets work best for the endomorph. Endomorphs usually have varying degrees of carbohydrate sensitivity and insulin resistance. Therefore, high carbohydrate, low fat diets are usually not effective. Sugar is a major no-no: Processed and refined carbohydrates that contain white sugar and white flour tend to convert to body fat very rapidly in endomorphs because of the way they affect the hormone insulin.

Exercise is an absolute MUST

Endomorphs generally have a very difficult time losing fat with diet alone. Even a close-to-perfect diet often doesn’t work by itself because the endomorph needs the boost in metabolism that comes from exercise. The endomorph must do everything in his or her power to stimulate their metabolism and this means combining good nutrition with weight training and aerobic training. To diet without exercising means certain failure for the endomorph.

Large amounts of cardio

Someone with a low endomorph component may stay lean with little or no cardio at all. Endomorphs need a larger quantity of cardio to lose body fat. Most endomorphs will lose fat with surprising ease by doing some type of cardio at least 4 – 5 times per week. Extreme endomorphs usually need cardio every day (seven days per week). All endomorphs will tend to gain the fat back if they stop doing cardio completely. Often, they successfully lose weight, but then put it back on if they haven’t made the commitment to continue exercising for life.

Get more activity in general

Endomorphs usually (but not always) have a tendency towards relaxing as opposed to staying constantly in motion. Their natural inclination is usually to kick back in the easy chair, while their ectomorphic or mesomorphic counterpart might “relax” with a nice 40mile bike ride.

The best strategy for the endomorph is to get active and stay active! You have to get moving! Take up some sports or recreational activities in addition to your regular workouts in the gym. If you’re an endomorph you should get some type of activity almost every day.

Make a lifelong commitment to fitness

Endomorphs must commit to a lifelong exercise program and avoid quick fixes or any short-term approach to fitness. After reaching the long term ultimate body fat and body weight goal, the endomorph needs to commit to at least three days a week of exercise -for life – to keep the fat off. This should be done for health reasons anyway, but for the endomorph, exercise is essential to maintain a desirable body fat ratio. Once you begin, you must keep going or you will lose your momentum. Every time you stop working out, you can be sure the body fat will slowly start to creep back on. Long “vacations” from physical activity are not a good idea. Get your momentum going and keep it going.

Train hard

The basic endomorph disposition is towards taking it easy and relaxing. If you are an endomorph, you must fight this urge and train with high intensity. You have to push yourself constantly. Not only must you train almost every day, you must push yourself to train harder every day and repeatedly beat your own personal best. The best advice for the endomorph that I’ve ever heard came from a Zen master; Roshi Philip Kapleau. He said,

“Don’t relax your efforts, otherwise it will take you a long time to achieve what you are after.”

Increase your training frequency

This is important – the endomorph must stay in motion to keep their metabolic engine revving. Staying still for too long is the death of the endomorph. The boost in resting metabolism from training doesn’t last long. For someone with a naturally slow metabolism, the only way to keep it elevated is with a high frequency of training.

Increase your training duration

Losing fat all boils down to burning calories. You must burn more calories than you consume each day. The most obvious way to burn more calories is to do your cardio for a longer duration. 20 minutes is the recommended starting point for effective fat burning, but for the endomorph, this is seldom enough. 20 minutes is a maintenance workout for endomorphs. For maximum fat loss I recommend 30-45 minutes of continuous aerobic activity and in some instances it may be necessary to go as long as 60 minutes until a goal is achieved. Go back to the 20-minute workouts for maintenance only after you reach your goal.

Avoid over-sleeping.

Endomorphs should avoid excessive sleep. They should be early risers. The chances are good that if you’re an endomorph, you are not an early riser and you often have the urge to hit snooze and go back to sleep. Resist this urge. Getting up early for morning cardio is one of the best strategies for the endomorph.

Watch Less TV

Any pastimes or hobbies that glue your rear end to a couch are not the preferred option for an endomorph, especially if you also spend 40 hours or more behind a desk each week. This means you should replace as much TV watching as possible with physical recreation or exercise (unless your workout machine is parked in front of the TV and you’re on it).

Use metabolism-stimulating exercise

Weight training exercises that utilize large muscle groups like the back and legs are extremely effective for stimulating the metabolism and for stimulating the hormones that increase fat burning. High rep compound leg exercises (squats, lunges, leg presses, etc) are particularly effective for this purpose. Toning classes, yoga, pilates and similar activities have some fantastic benefits, but for the endomorph, this type of activity is NOT the ideal way to lower body fat. Participate in these activities as a supplement to your regular weights and cardio, but not by themselves.

Always be on the lookout for something to motivate and inspire you.

Endomorphs sometimes lack motivation, especially in the beginning. The solution is to be on the constant lookout for anything and everything to motivate and inspire you. Read biographies. Watch the Olympics, get a training partner, read motivational books, hire a trainer or personal coach, re-write your goals every single day, or enter a before and after fitness contest. Stay pumped up and fired up!

Restrict carbohydrates, but never remove them completely

The endomorph nutrition strategy leans towards higher protein (and slightly higher fat) diet with more moderate carbohydrates (Similar to a “Zone” diet). This is necessary because most endomorphs tend to be carbohydrate sensitive. People with normal carbohydrate metabolisms can consume up to 50-60% of their total calories from carbohydrates and stay lean, while endomorphs will tend to get fat eating this many carbohydrates.

Keep cheat meals to only once per week

Endomorphs have very unforgiving metabolisms. They cannot “cheat” frequently and get away with it. One or two cheat meals per week seem to be the limit. Poor daily habits or frequent cheat days always seem to set them back. Cheat days should be reserved for special occasions or as well-deserved rewards for a week of great training and nutrition.

Be consistent and persistent

The endomorph loses body fat more slowly than ectomorphs or mesomorphs. Therefore, endomorphs must be very consistent and diligent in eating and exercise habits 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year. Going on and off diet and exercise programs will never work for the endomorph. Endomorphs will lose body fat just like everyone else, but it almost always takes a little longer. The results will come, but not without time and effort. Patience is a virtue all endomorphs must cultivate.

Herbal Treatment For Eczema – The Best Herbs to Put a Quick End to Eczema & Give You Quick Relief

Eczema can be identified as a chronic skin disorder that will create inflamed, dry, scaly, and red skin. People who are dealing with eczema will sometimes experience periods when the symptoms of the condition will be significantly reduced, and then they’ll experience periods of intense flare ups.

Although there are a lot of medical treatment methods for this condition, most people are interested in treating themselves with natural methods. The good news is there are a variety of natural treatment methods available that can reduce the symptoms and stop future episodes of flare ups.

One of the best natural methods for treating this condition involves the use of herbs. A good herbal treatment for eczema is aveno oats. You can use aveno oats as well as aloe gel to soothe the skin and get relief from the inflammation.

To reduce the redness and inflammation associated with this condition you can use herbal creams such as calendula or witch hazel creams. Another effective herbal treatment for eczema s chickweed, which can stop your skin from getting hard and stop the itching.

If you want to get some quick inflammation relief you can make use of copaiba oil by applying it directly to the affected area. A great herbal treatment for eczema you can take internally is oregon grape root. Taking oregon grape root internally will put an end to the inflammation and get rid of toxins from your body as well.

If you want to boost your immune system as well as stop the inflammation of eczema you can take 150-300 milligrams of reishi mushroom two to three times each day. Another great herbal treatment for eczema because of its antibacterial and antifungal properties is olive leaf. Take 250 to 500 milligrams of olive leaf each day for it to be effective.

Along with treating eczema with these powerful herbs, you should also try to avoid things that can trigger the conditions. WIth that being said, do your best to manage stress since this is a major trigger of this condition.

Pathological Eating Disorders and Poly-Behavioral Addiction

When considering that pathological eating disorders and their related diseases now afflict more people globally than malnutrition, some experts in the medical field are presently purporting that the world’s number one health problem is no longer heart disease or cancer, but obesity. According to the World Health Organization (June, 2005), “obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults overweight – at least 300 million of them clinically obese – and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability. Often coexisting in developing countries with under-nutrition, obesity is a complex condition, with serious social and psychological dimensions, affecting virtually all ages and socioeconomic groups.” The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (June, 2005), reports that “during the past 20 years, obesity among adults has risen significantly in the United States. The latest data from the National Center for Health Statistics show that 30 percent of U.S. adults 20 years of age and older – over 60 million people – are obese. This increase is not limited to adults. The percentage of young people who are overweight has more than tripled since 1980. Among children and teens aged 6-19 years, 16 percent (over 9 million young people) are considered overweight.”

Morbid obesity is a condition that is described as being 100lbs. or more above ideal weight, or having a Body Mass Index (BMI) equal to or greater than 30. Being obese alone puts one at a much greater risk of suffering from a combination of several other metabolic factors such as having high blood pressure, being insulin resistant, and/ or having abnormal cholesterol levels that are all related to a poor diet and a lack of exercise. The sum is greater than the parts. Each metabolic problem is a risk for other diseases separately, but together they multiply the chances of life-threatening illness such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke, etc. Up to 30.5% of our Nations’ adults suffer from morbid obesity, and two thirds or 66% of adults are overweight measured by having a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 25. Considering that the U.S. population is now over 290,000,000, some estimate that up to 73,000,000 Americans could benefit from some type of education awareness and/ or treatment for a pathological eating disorder or food addiction. Typically, eating patterns are considered pathological problems when issues concerning weight and/ or eating habits, (e.g., overeating, under eating, binging, purging, and/ or obsessing over diets and calories, etc.) become the focus of a persons’ life, causing them to feel shame, guilt, and embarrassment with related symptoms of depression and anxiety that cause significant maladaptive social and/ or occupational impairment in functioning.

We must consider that some people develop dependencies on certain life-functioning activities such as eating that can be just as life threatening as drug addiction and just as socially and psychologically damaging as alcoholism. Some do suffer from hormonal or metabolic disorders, but most obese individuals simply consume more calories than they burn due to an out of control overeating Food Addiction. Hyper-obesity resulting from gross, habitual overeating is considered to be more like the problems found in those ingrained personality disorders that involve loss of control over appetite of some kind (Orford, 1985). Binge-eating Disorder episodes are characterized in part by a feeling that one cannot stop or control how much or what one is eating (DSM-IV-TR, 2000). Lienard and Vamecq (2004) have proposed an “auto-addictive” hypothesis for pathological eating disorders. They report that, “eating disorders are associated with abnormal levels of endorphins and share clinical similarities with psychoactive drug abuse. The key role of endorphins has recently been demonstrated in animals with regard to certain aspects of normal, pathological and experimental eating habits (food restriction combined with stress, loco-motor hyperactivity).” They report that the “pathological management of eating disorders may lead to two extreme situations: the absence of ingestion (anorexia) and excessive ingestion (bulimia).”

Co-morbidity & Mortality

Addictions and other mental disorders as a rule do not develop in isolation. The National Co-morbidity Survey (NCS) that sampled the entire U.S. population in 1994, found that among non-institutionalized American male and female adolescents and adults (ages 15-54), roughly 50% had a diagnosable Axis I mental disorder at some time in their lives. This survey’s results indicated that 35% of males will at some time in their lives have abused substances to the point of qualifying for a mental disorder diagnosis, and nearly 25% of women will have qualified for a serious mood disorder (mostly major depression). A significant finding of note from the NCS study was the widespread occurrence of co-morbidity among diagnosed disorders. It specifically found that 56% of the respondents with a history of at least one disorder also had two or more additional disorders. These persons with a history of three or more co-morbid disorders were estimated to be one-sixth of the U.S. population, or some 43 million people (Kessler, 1994).

McGinnis and Foege, (1994) report that, “the most prominent contributors to mortality in the United States in 1990 were tobacco (an estimated 400,000 deaths), diet and activity patterns (300,000), alcohol (100,000), microbial agents (90,000), toxic agents (60,000), firearms (35,000), sexual behavior (30,000), motor vehicles (25,000), and illicit use of drugs (20,000). Acknowledging that the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality was risky behavior lifestyles, the U.S. Prevention Services Task Force set out to research behavioral counseling interventions in health care settings (Williams & Wilkins, 1996).

Poor Prognosis

We have come to realize today more than any other time in history that the treatment of lifestyle diseases and addictions are often a difficult and frustrating task for all concerned. Repeated failures abound with all of the addictions, even with utilizing the most effective treatment strategies. But why do 47% of patients treated in private treatment programs (for example) relapse within the first year following treatment (Gorski,T., 2001)? Have addiction specialists become conditioned to accept failure as the norm? There are many reasons for this poor prognosis. Some would proclaim that addictions are psychosomatically- induced and maintained in a semi-balanced force field of driving and restraining multidimensional forces. Others would say that failures are due simply to a lack of self-motivation or will power. Most would agree that lifestyle behavioral addictions are serious health risks that deserve our attention, but could it possibly be that patients with multiple addictions are being under diagnosed (with a single dependence) simply due to a lack of diagnostic tools and resources that are incapable of resolving the complexity of assessing and treating a patient with multiple addictions?

Diagnostic Delineation

Thus far, the DSM-IV-TR has not delineated a diagnosis for the complexity of multiple behavioral and substance addictions. It has reserved the Poly-substance Dependence diagnosis for a person who is repeatedly using at least three groups of substances during the same 12-month period, but the criteria for this diagnosis do not involve any behavioral addiction symptoms. In the Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition’s section (DSM-IV-TR, 2000); maladaptive health behaviors (e.g., overeating, unsafe sexual practices, excessive alcohol and drug use, etc.) may be listed on Axis I only if they are significantly affecting the course of treatment of a medical or mental condition.

Since successful treatment outcomes are dependent on thorough assessments, accurate diagnoses, and comprehensive individualized treatment planning, it is no wonder that repeated rehabilitation failures and low success rates are the norm instead of the exception in the addictions field, when the latest DSM-IV-TR does not even include a diagnosis for multiple addictive behavioral disorders. Treatment clinics need to have a treatment planning system and referral network that is equipped to thoroughly assess multiple addictive and mental health disorders and related treatment needs and comprehensively provide education/ awareness, prevention strategy groups, and/ or specific addictions treatment services for individuals diagnosed with multiple addictions. Written treatment goals and objectives should be specified for each separate addiction and dimension of an individuals’ life, and the desired performance outcome or completion criteria should be specifically stated, behaviorally based (a visible activity), and measurable.

New Proposed Diagnosis

To assist in resolving the limited DSM-IV-TRs’ diagnostic capability, a multidimensional diagnosis of “Poly-behavioral Addiction,” is proposed for more accurate diagnosis leading to more effective treatment planning. This diagnosis encompasses the broadest category of addictive disorders that would include an individual manifesting a combination of substance abuse addictions, and other obsessively-compulsive behavioral addictive behavioral patterns to pathological gambling, religion, and/ or sex / pornography, etc.). Behavioral addictions are just as damaging – psychologically and socially as alcohol and drug abuse. They are comparative to other life-style diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease in their behavioral manifestations, their etiologies, and their resistance to treatments. They are progressive disorders that involve obsessive thinking and compulsive behaviors. They are also characterized by a preoccupation with a continuous or periodic loss of control, and continuous irrational behavior in spite of adverse consequences.

Poly-behavioral addiction would be described as a state of periodic or chronic physical, mental, emotional, cultural, sexual and/ or spiritual/ religious intoxication. These various types of intoxication are produced by repeated obsessive thoughts and compulsive practices involved in pathological relationships to any mood-altering substance, person, organization, belief system, and/ or activity. The individual has an overpowering desire, need or compulsion with the presence of a tendency to intensify their adherence to these practices, and evidence of phenomena of tolerance, abstinence and withdrawal, in which there is always physical and/ or psychic dependence on the effects of this pathological relationship. In addition, there is a 12 – month period in which an individual is pathologically involved with three or more behavioral and/ or substance use addictions simultaneously, but the criteria are not met for dependence for any one addiction in particular (Slobodzien, J., 2005). In essence, Poly-behavioral addiction is the synergistically integrated chronic dependence on multiple physiologically addictive substances and behaviors (e.g., using/ abusing substances – nicotine, alcohol, & drugs, and/or acting impulsively or obsessively compulsive in regards to gambling, food binging, sex, and/ or religion, etc.) simultaneously.

New Proposed Theory

The Addictions Recovery Measurement System’s (ARMS) theory is a nonlinear, dynamical, non-hierarchical model that focuses on interactions between multiple risk factors and situational determinants similar to catastrophe and chaos theories in predicting and explaining addictive behaviors and relapse. Multiple influences trigger and operate within high-risk situations and influence the global multidimensional functioning of an individual. The process of relapse incorporates the interaction between background factors (e.g., family history, social support, years of possible dependence, and co-morbid psychopathology), physiological states (e.g., physical withdrawal), cognitive processes (e.g., self-efficacy, cravings, motivation, the abstinence violation effect, outcome expectancies), and coping skills (Brownell et al., 1986; Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). To put it simply, small changes in an individual’s behavior can result in large qualitative changes at the global level and patterns at the global level of a system emerge solely from numerous little interactions.

The ARMS hypothesis purports that there is a multidimensional synergistically negative resistance that individual’s develop to any one form of treatment to a single dimension of their lives, because the effects of an individual’s addiction have dynamically interacted multi-dimensionally. Having the primary focus on one dimension is insufficient. Traditionally, addiction treatment programs have failed to accommodate for the multidimensional synergistically negative effects of an individual having multiple addictions, (e.g. nicotine, alcohol, and obesity, etc.). Behavioral addictions interact negatively with each other and with strategies to improve overall functioning. They tend to encourage the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, help increase violence, decrease functional capacity, and promote social isolation. Most treatment theories today involve assessing other dimensions to identify dual diagnosis or co-morbidity diagnoses, or to assess contributing factors that may play a role in the individual’s primary addiction. The ARMS’ theory proclaims that a multidimensional treatment plan must be devised addressing the possible multiple addictions identified for each one of an individual’s life dimensions in addition to developing specific goals and objectives for each dimension.

The ARMS acknowledges the complexity and unpredictable nature of lifestyle addictions following the commitment of an individual to accept assistance with changing their lifestyles. The Stages of Change model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984) is supported as a model of motivation, incorporating five stages of readiness to change: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. The ARMS theory supports the constructs of self-efficacy and social networking as outcome predictors of future behavior across a wide variety of lifestyle risk factors (Bandura, 1977). The Relapse Prevention cognitive-behavioral approach (Marlatt, 1985) with the goal of identifying and preventing high-risk situations for relapse is also supported within the ARMS theory.

The ARMS continues to promote Twelve Step Recovery Groups such as Food Addicts and Alcoholics Anonymous along with spiritual and religious recovery activities as a necessary means to maintain outcome effectiveness. The beneficial effects of AA may be attributable in part to the replacement of the participant’s social network of drinking friends with a fellowship of AA members who can provide motivation and support for maintaining abstinence (Humphreys, K.; Mankowski, E.S, 1999) and (Morgenstern, J.; Labouvie, E.; McCrady, B.S.; Kahler, C.W.; and Frey, R.M., 1997). In addition, AA’s approach often results in the development of coping skills, many of which are similar to those taught in more structured psychosocial treatment settings, thereby leading to reductions in alcohol consumption (NIAAA, June 2005).

Treatment Progress Dimensions

The American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition”, has set the standard in the field of addiction treatment for recognizing the totality of the individual in his or her life situation. This includes the internal interconnection of multiple dimensions from biomedical to spiritual, as well as external relationships of the individual to the family and larger social groups. Life-style addictions may affect many domains of an individual’s functioning and frequently require multi-modal treatment. Real progress however, requires appropriate interventions and motivating strategies for every dimension of an individual’s life.

The Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS) has identified the following seven treatment progress areas (dimensions) in an effort to: (1) assist clinicians with identifying additional motivational techniques that can increase an individual’s awareness to make progress: (2) measure within treatment progress, and (3) measure after treatment outcome effectiveness:

PD- 1. Abstinence/ Relapse: Progress Dimension

PD- 2. Bio-medical/ Physical: Progress Dimension

PD- 3. Mental/ Emotional: Progress Dimension

PD- 4. Social/ Cultural: Progress Dimension

PD- 5. Educational/ Occupational: Progress Dimension

PD- 6. Attitude/ Behavioral: Progress Dimension

PD- 7. Spirituality/ Religious: Progress Dimension

Considering that addictions involve unbalanced life-styles operating within semi-stable equilibrium force fields, the ARMS philosophy promotes that positive treatment effectiveness and successful outcomes are the result of a synergistic relationship with “The Higher Power,” that spiritually elevates and connects an individuals’ multiple life functioning dimensions by reducing chaos and increasing resilience to bring an individual harmony, wellness, and productivity.

Addictions Recovery Measurement – Subsystems

Since chronic lifestyle diseases and disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, alcoholism, drug and behavioral addictions cannot be cured, but only managed – how should we effectively manage poly-behavioral addiction?

The Addiction Recovery Measurement System (ARMS) is proposed utilizing a multidimensional integrative assessment, treatment planning, treatment progress, and treatment outcome measurement tracking system that facilitates rapid and accurate recognition and evaluation of an individual’s comprehensive life-functioning progress dimensions. The “ARMS”- systematically, methodically, interactively, & spiritually combines the following five versatile subsystems that may be utilized individually or incorporated together:

1) The Prognostication System – composed of twelve screening instruments developed to evaluate an individual’s total life-functioning dimensions for a comprehensive bio-psychosocial assessment for an objective 5-Axis diagnosis with a point-based Global Assessment of Functioning score;

2) The Target Intervention System – that includes the Target Intervention Measure (TIM) and Target Progress Reports (A) & (B), for individualized goal-specific treatment planning;

3) The Progress Point System – a standardized performance-based motivational recovery point system utilized to produce in-treatment progress reports on six life-functioning individual dimensions;

4) The Multidimensional Tracking System – with its Tracking Team Surveys (A) & (B), along with the ARMS Discharge criteria guidelines utilizes a multidisciplinary tracking team to assist with discharge planning; and

5) The Treatment Outcome Measurement System – that utilizes the following two measurement instruments: (a) The Treatment Outcome Measure (TOM); and (b) the Global Assessment of Progress (GAP), to assist with aftercare treatment planning.

National Movement

With the end of the Cold War, the threat of a world nuclear war has diminished considerably. It may be hard to imagine that in the end, comedians may be exploiting the humor in the fact that it wasn’t nuclear warheads, but “French fries” that annihilated the human race. On a more serious note, lifestyle diseases and addictions are the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, yet brief preventive behavioral assessments and counseling interventions are under-utilized in health care settings (Whitlock, 2002).

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded that effective behavioral counseling interventions that address personal health practices hold greater promise for improving overall health than many secondary preventive measures, such as routine screening for early disease (USPSTF, 1996). Common health-promoting behaviors include healthy diet, regular physical exercise, smoking cessation, appropriate alcohol/ medication use, and responsible sexual practices to include use of condoms and contraceptives.

350 national organizations and 250 State public health, mental health, substance abuse, and environmental agencies support the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Healthy People 2010” program. This national initiative recommends that primary care clinicians utilize clinical preventive assessments and brief behavioral counseling for early detection, prevention, and treatment of lifestyle disease and addiction indicators for all patients’ upon every healthcare visit.

Partnerships and coordination among service providers, government departments, and community organizations in providing treatment programs are a necessity in addressing the multi-task solution to poly-behavioral addiction. I encourage you to support the mental health and addiction programs in America, and hope that the (ARMS) resources can assist you to personally fight the War on pathological eating disorders within poly-behavioral addiction.

For more info see:

Poly-Behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System,

By James Slobodzien, Psy.D., CSAC at:

[http://www.geocities.com/drslbdzn/Behavioral-Addictions.html]

Food Addicts Anonymous: http://www.foodaddictsanonymous.org/

Alcoholics Anonymous: http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org/

References

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition,

Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 787 & p. 731.

American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the

Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition,. Retrieved, June 18, 2005, from:

http://www.asam.org/

Bandura, A. (1977), Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review,

84, 191-215.

Brownell, K. D., Marlatt, G. A., Lichtenstein, E., & Wilson, G. T. (1986). Understanding and preventing relapse. American Psychologist, 41, 765-782.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved June 18, 2005, from: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/

Gorski, T. (2001), Relapse Prevention In The Managed Care Environment. GORSKI-CENAPS Web

Healthy People 2010. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from: http://www.healthypeople.gov/

Publications. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from: http://www.tgorski.com

Lienard, J. & Vamecq, J. (2004), Presse Med, Oct 23;33(18 Suppl):33-40.

Marlatt, G. A. (1985). Relapse prevention: Theoretical rationale and overview of the model. In G. A.

Marlatt & J. R. Gordon (Eds.), Relapse prevention (pp. 250-280). New York: Guilford Press.

McGinnis JM, Foege WH (1994). Actual causes of death in the United States. US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC 20201

Humphreys, K.; Mankowski, E.S.; Moos, R.H.; and Finney, J.W (1999). Do enhanced friendship networks and active coping mediate the effect of self-help groups on substance abuse? Ann Behav Med 21(1):54-60.

Kessler, R.C., McGonagle, K.A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C.B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H. H,-U, & Kendler, K.S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United

States: Results from the national co morbidity survey. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 51, 8-19.

Morgenstern, J.; Labouvie, E.; McCrady, B.S.; Kahler, C.W.; and Frey, R.M (1997). Affiliation with Alcoholics Anonymous after treatment: A study of its therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action. J Consult Clin Psychol 65(5):768-777.

Orford, J. (1985). Excessive appetites: A psychological view of addiction. New York: Wiley.

Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1984). The transtheoretical approach: Crossing the boundaries of therapy. Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Slobodzien, J. (2005). Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), Booklocker.com, Inc., p. 5.

Whitlock, E.P. (1996). Evaluating Primary Care Behavioral Counseling Interventions: An Evidence-based Approach. Am J Prev Med 2002;22(4): 267-84.Williams & Wilkins. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Alexandria, VA.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

World Health Organization, (WHO). Retrieved June 18, 2005, from: http://www.who.int/topics/obesity/en/

What Is Malignant Hypertension: Causes, Symptoms, Prevention

High blood pressure or more commonly known as hypertension is an incredibly common condition that is known to affect as many as one in three Americans each year. Hypertension can easily be diagnosed simply by checking if your BP is above 120 systolic or 80 diastolic. Hypertension is often easily managed, as long as you make an effort to follow the advice from your family’s doctor’s. Although not as common as hypertension, some individuals with high blood pressure may suddenly experience a sudden increase in BP that is recorded above 180 systolic or 120 diastolic. This sudden increase in BP is known as malignant hypertension. This particular condition may also be referred to as arteriolar nephrosclerosis. If an individual suffers from the condition, it’s advised that they seek immediate medical attention. If emergency treatment is not received, the individual runs the risk of developing much more serious health problems, as a result, such as kidney failure, heart attack or even brain damage.

What is known to cause malignant hypertension?

Throughout many individuals, high blood pressure is known to be one of the primary causes. If these individuals also rely on some form of BP medication, missing a dose can also cause the condition to occur. Malignant hypertension is mostly discovered in patients who possess some form of history of high blood pressure. According to the official National Institutes of Health, approximately one percent of individuals who suffer from high blood pressure will eventually begin to develop malignant hypertension. Furthermore, there are also certain medical conditions that are also responsible for malignant hypertension. Some health conditions can significantly increase an individual’s chances of developing malignant hypertension such as:

– Forgetting or not taking medication for treating high blood pressure.

– Narrowing of the main blood vessel from the heart, aorta, or aortic dissection (a form of bleeding from the wall of the aorta).

– Narrowing of the arteries found in the kidneys (known as renal stenosis).

– A result of a spinal cord injury causing over-activity in parts of a patient’s nervous system.

– Autoimmune diseases (antibodies produced in a patient’s body to fight against its own tissues).

– Preeclampsia and pregnancy.

– Drug use such as anti-depressants, oral contraceptives, amphetamines and even cocaine.

– Kidney failure or disorders.

Who is at risk for developing malignant hypertension?

Approximately 1% of individual’s who have some form of history related to high blood pressure will develop this life-threatening condition. Studies have shown that you may be at greater risk of developing this disease if you are male or African-American origin. Unlike high blood pressure, the serious condition that is malignant hypertension is capable of producing very noticeable symptoms, some of which include:

– Reduced level of urination.

– Frequent headaches.

– Shortness of breath.

– Weakness or a level of numbness in the face, legs or arms.

– Vomiting and nausea.

– Increased level of anxiety.

– Frequent coughing.

– Regular chest pains.

– Changes in vision such as blurred vision.

Malignant hypertension can also lead to another condition which is referred to as hypertensive encephalopathy. Symptoms of this condition can include:

– Seizures.

– Lack of energy.

– Increased level of confusion.

– Blurred vision.

– Headaches.

This variety of symptoms may not be caused specifically by malignant hypertension, however, they may be linked to a variety of less serious health conditions. Nevertheless, this disease is incredibly serious and life threatening, which means if you experience any form of symptoms related to this condition you should seek immediate emergency treatment. Your family doctor will also be capable of providing you with a wide variety of information and important advice surrounding the condition. Hypertension, is known to really take its toll on our kidneys. It can make it exceptionally difficult for our kidneys to filter out toxins and unnecessary waste from our blood. Which is why malignant hypertension is one of the leading causes of kidney failure. Malignant hypertension is also capable of causing your kidneys to eventually and suddenly stop working altogether.

I have been diagnosed with malignant hypertension, what should I expect?

In the past decades malignant hypertension was known to be a fatal condition. Nevertheless, through modern medicine and the latest techniques, treatment is readily available for successfully treating this condition. Nevertheless, it’s known that during treatment of malignant hypertension, kidney function may become worse or decrease significantly. However, kidney function will often improve throughout the duration of the treatment as the condition is resolved, although this cannot always be guaranteed if the kidneys have received severe levels of damage prior to treatment. Typically a patient will begin to see forms of improvement within a week to 4 weeks respectively, even after receiving dialysis. Approximately 1 in 5 individuals who have suffered from the malignant hypertension condition will ultimately require long-term dialysis. Some individuals may experience some form of permanent damage to the eyes or brain.

How is the malignant hypertension condition treated?

Malignant hypertension is a serious medical emergency that requires sufficient levels of treatment in a hospital, which usually involves some form of intensive care unit. Individuals diagnosed with the condition will receive advice from a doctor who will be able to consider their symptoms and health upon deciding what form of medical treatment is the best solution for their personal case. The result of the treatment should be to carefully and steadily lower the patient’s BP. BP medication is received through an IV which is one of the quickest methods in order to treat extremely high levels of BP. Once the patient’s BP returns to an acceptable and safe level, the medications received via the IV will often be switched to a form of oral medication. If the patient develops kidney failure throughout their condition, they may need to receive kidney dialysis.

How can I prevent malignant hypertension?

Thankfully, some forms of malignant hypertension can easily be prevented. If you are known to have a high blood pressure, it’s essential that you receive regular BP checks with your doctor to make sure it’s safe and not increasing. If you have high blood pressure, you will no doubt be provided with a form of medication, which must be taken as instructed without missing any doses. Always remember to take your medication and follow the advice given by your doctor. Other ways that you can help to keep your BP down can be:

– Limit salt intake.

– Lose weight.

– Reduce stress levels.

– Change your diet to include more fresh fruit and vegetables.

– Reduce alcohol intake.

– Quit smoking.

Dr. Bob Marshall Bio: Know More About Popularly Revered Clinical Nutritionist

Dr. Robert “Bob” Marshall is widely known nutritionist especially among Americans. He is popularly known for his radio program- “Health Line”. His radio program has been on air for 14 years. Dr. Bob’s advocacy is helping people worldwide in their health. He is doing this through developing and providing people with nutritional information through his researches. Even so, only a few people know about this great nutritionist, so this article will present a short Dr. Bob Marshall bio to make others know about him.

In 1969, Dr. Marshall actually had struggled from an “in-diagnosable” condition and this is what motivated him to learn and research stuff about Nutrition. On this, there had been a lot of treatments done, but failed to treat his illness. However, this condition had led him to learn about health and nutrition, not just to find treatments for his ailments but his actually loved doing it. With this, he studied at Columbia Pacific University and completely attained his degree in 1978. Then after which, he pursued PhD and obtained the degree of a Clinical Nutritionist that qualified him to get certification from International and American Association of Clinical Nutritionists in Texas to practice the profession. And as a matter of fact, he became the Association’s President on the year 1998-2000.

But, so as to further his knowledge, he had done Nutritional and Biochemical Research. This research made him find extensive solutions for many illnesses and conditions. Furthermore, this research had led him to formulate his own nutritional system. Dr. Bob Marshall essentially focuses on products that are natural and definitely non-toxic.

Dr. Bob has propagated his studies to a greater expanse and this made him do a radio program- the “Health Line”. This program is on air during weekends at KRLA-AM-870 in Southern California. Through this program, Dr, Bob made a lot of revelation about new developments and info regarding health and nutrition. Also, in this radio program, people can also ask for their concerns and answers them.

Other than his radio program, his also had authored many publications along with other authors. In fact, he had first developed a Computerized Nutrition and Health Habits Evaluation. Also, Dr. Marshall authored a bestselling book called “Fit for Life”.

Up to these days, Dr. Marshall continues to find solutions to various health concerns through his continuous researching. And still, he actively participates with the International and American Association of Clinical Nutritionists and American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Also, he is constantly conducting health and nutrition seminars all over America.

A Jungian Psychology Approach To Anxiety

Anxiety is a very common disorder in today’s world, largely due to the fact that we feel hurried, pressured and pushed to perform, pay the mortgage, deal with kids, and on top of all that, live a full life. No wonder we have anxiety. But what is anxiety trying to tell us? From a Jungian Psychology perspective, anxiety is the psyche’s way of telling us that the way we are living is out of balance. Rather than view anxiety as something to be eliminated, with medication, we need to see that the psyche is giving us a clear message about our one-sided life and is gently asking us to change this. Viewed in this light, anxiety symptoms are there to guide us out of a lifestyle that is no longer working.

Carl Jung argued that anxiety symptoms are purposive, functional and have a goal – the alteration of our lifestyle. When we eliminate the symptoms through medication, we deny the wisdom of the psyche in making normal, natural change. Anxiety often appears in mid-life, when many of us experience a mid-life crisis. The first half of life is aimed at establishing our identity, our relationships, our occupation, and building up the necessary resources to accomplish all of these tasks. But, there comes a time when we need to turn inwards, to encounter the contents of the unconscious (often provided to us in the form of dreams) and search out the essential meaning of life. What is my purpose in life? Why am I here? How could I be living a more balanced, natural life? It is anxiety that often propels us towards answering these questions. When next you feel intense anxiety, ask yourself what the psyche is trying to tell you? What is it that I am doing that creates the anxiety, then begin to address the causes of the symptoms, rather than the cure.

If we answer the question – what is the anxiety trying to tell me – we begin to address the cause. This may mean some change in the way you life your life, but this change does not necessarily mean that you become less competent, or less valued, rather, it means that you begin to value the wisdom of your psyche more than before. By addressing the causes of the anxiety and making lifestyle changes, the anxiety should diminish, having achieved its goal – leading you towards a more full, balanced lifestyle.

3 Foods to Avoid While Constipated

Most people have bowel movements every day or every second day depending on their diet and lifestyle. Constipation is having difficulty trying to empty your bowels for more than 3 or 4 days, or having extremely hard stools that cause pain when you try to expel them from your body. You must eat food that softens your stools to relieve constipation. Eating food that makes them harden will make the condition worse.

Heavy foods like red meat, deep-fried foods like battered fish and chips, bakery products with like pastries, cakes and bread generally take a long time to digest. Food must pass through the stomach, large intestine, small intestine, colon then the bowels before the waste products are passed out of the body as waste. Along the way different nutrients and water are extracted and delivered to the part of the body that requires it. The longer the process takes the more water is extracted, the drier or harder the stools become. Also if food is relatively dry to start with or inadequate liquid (excluding caffine products and alcohol which may be dyhydrating) is consumed the end product (the stools) will subsequently be dry or hard. [“Water is the best drink for a wise man.” said the French philosopher Henry David Thoreau.]

Red meat comes from large strong animals so it’s meat is tougher compared with the animals that white meat comes from. Therefore its meat takes longer to break down in our bodies because the muscles are stronger. White meat is easier to digest because fish and poultry have smaller muscles compared with cattle and pigs.

Fried food is generally oily. Oil makes the food tasty and softer in most cases but it is something the body doesn’t really need. The body must work harder to extract oil and fats from food so that they can be expelled. If the body’s digestive system is busy trying to neutralise other toxins that have entered the system the fat will be placed in “storage areas” around the body until it has resources to process it. When these “store rooms” are too crowded we feel bloated and uncomfortable.

Products which contain a lot of wheat flour and oil which have little nutritional value. Flour is basically a carrier for other foods. For example, the pastry shell of a pie is a “bag” or edible packaging for the meat, vegetables or fruit inside it, bread is what holds a sandwich together. The crust or bread simply make the filling more palatable and easier to digest. But most breads and pastries are simply flour, oil and air which contain no nutrients. Consuming more of the pastry rather than the filling will just clog up your digestive system, especially if you are constipated.

As my title promised I need to nominate the 3 top foods to avoid that someone with constipation should avoid. To narrow down the candidates we should consider foods that fall into two or all of the above three categories then pick out the ones that are consumed the most. The nominations are:

  • Meat pies and sausage rolls contain red meat and flour.
  • Fish and Chips are fried and the batter contains flour.
  • Barbecued or grilled steak – meat that is cooked relatively quickly doesn’t break down the fatty tissue and muscles as well as slow cooked meat so when it enters your stomach it has to be broken down more by your digestive juices.
  • Potato chips or crisps are fried and very dry. Your body must use more water to digest this so your stools will become harder if you are already constipated.
  • Hard cheeses as they have most of their moisture content pressed out in their production process. As well they contain fat and protein from a large animal.
  • Deep fried meat like schnitzel, sweet and sour pork, fried chicken.
  • Bacon and eggs or sausages and eggs.
  • Salami and other processed meats.

My pick for the top three are meat pies, deep-fried battered fish ‘n chips and potato crisps. What are yours?